the second of the eight parts of speech, is a word that takes
the place of a noun.
➲In the sentence, ‘‘Felipe is an intelligent student,’’ the noun, Felipe, can
be replaced by the singular pronoun he. Thus, the new sentence reads,
‘‘He is an intelligent student.’’
➲In the sentence, ‘‘We offered the baseball tickets to Rita and Drew,’’
the nouns, Rita and Drew, can be replaced by the plural pronoun,
them. The new sentence will now read, ‘‘We offered the baseball tickets
There are several types of pronouns.
Personal pronouns refer to people, places, things, and ideas. I, me, you,
your, they, us, and it are all personal pronouns.
Reflexive pronouns are formed by adding ‘‘-self’’ or ‘‘-selves’’ to cer-
personal pronouns. They ‘‘reflect’’ back to the person or thing
mentioned in the sentence. Myself, himself, herself, itself, yourself, your-
and themselves are reflexive pronouns. There is no such word as
Demonstrative pronouns can be singular or plural. They point out a
specific person, place, or thing. This, that, these, and those are demonstrative
Interrogative pronouns, like their name suggests, are used when asking
a question. Who, whom, which, and whose are interrogative pronouns.
Indefinite pronouns do not refer to a specific person, place, or thing.
Some indefinite pronouns are another, both, everyone, most, no one, and
Look at this list of common weather words. Notice that it is very common to form adjectives by adding ‘-y’.Note:
When it rains for a short period of time, we call it a shower, e.g. We had several showers yesterday afternoon.
When it is raining a lot we often say it’s pouring or it’s pouring with rain. This phrase is much more common than ‘it’s raining cats and dogs’, which many students seem to learn.
People round the world have different ideas about temperature:
5°C (five degrees centigrade) is freezing for many Brazilians.
-10°C (minus ten degrees or ten degrees below zero) is very cold but quite normal in the mountains in Switzerland during the winter when it usually snows a lot.
30-35°C is boiling for England and very unusual, but it is very common in parts of Spain during the summer.
The first word here is very gentle; the last is more than 100 km per hour and can be very dangerous.
a breeze a wind a strong wind a gale a hurricane
It was a hot day but there was a lovely breeze.
The wind blew my hat off.
The hurricane in Florida destroyed trees and buildings.
A spell (= period) of very hot weather often ends with a thunderstorm. First it becomes very humid (= hot and wet), then you get thunder and lightning, and finally, very heavy rain (= it pours with rain). Afterwards, it is usually cooler and it feels fresher.