prepositions - without

Prepositions - Without

1. Without indicates the absence of somebody.
I can't live without you.
Please don't leave without me.

2. Without means not having.

Pattern: verb + without + (any) noun
That young mother manages without any help.
We are without money this month.

3. Without means not using.

Pattern: verb + noun + without + noun
We did the crossword puzzle without a dictionary.
She can't read without her glasses.

4. Without means not performing an action.

Pattern: without + verb in gerund form
She passed the test without studying.
He left without saying good-bye.

5. Expressions

without a doubt—certainly
She is without a doubt the best chairman we have ever had.

without fail—a demand or promise to do something Be here at six A.M. without fail.
I will finish within three days without fail.

without ceremony—immediately and quietly
He took charge without ceremony and began to work.

that goes without saying—that is understood to be true
You will be paid well for your work; that goes without saying.
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    English Phrases
    To imply something means to suggest it in an indirect way, without saying it directly.
  • Larry's remarks implied that he'd be leaving the company soon.
  • The evidence seems to imply that the suspect is innocent of the crime.

    To infer something is to form a conclusion from the information available (especially if the information available does not state things directly):
  • From Larry's remarks, I inferred that he'd probably be leaving the company soon.
  • Based on the evidence, the judge inferred that the suspect was innocent.

    These two words describe the same event but from the two different sides (similar to lend and borrow). The speaker or writer implies a point (suggests it indirectly). The reader or listener infers a point (comes to their own conclusion after considering the indirect information).

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