Idiom of the Day
keep one's hands off (someone or something)
to refrain from touching or handling someone or something
My aunt asked her nephew to keep his hands off her furniture.
The French dominated the early history of human flight. In September 1783 the Montgolfier brothers launched a hot-air balloon carrying farm animals to show that it was safe to travel in the sky, and a
few weeks later Pilatre de Rozier and the Marquis dArlandes took to the air for a 5.5-mile 9kilometer trip over Paris. In 1852 another Frenchman, the engineer Henri Giffard, built the first
successful airshipa steam-powered, 143-foot-long 44-meter, cigar-shaped affair that flew at
about 6 mph 10 kph. About thirty years later Charles Renard and Arthur Krebs constructed an
electrically powered airship that was maneuverable even in light winds. By 1914 the French military
had built a fleet of semirigid airships, but they proved ineffective as weapons in the Great War. On
the other hand, nonrigid airships were widely used for aerial observation, coastal patrol, and
submarine spotting. Their advent generated a different type of very large building: the airship
hangar. The first zeppelin shed at Friedrichshafen, Germany 1908?1909, had been 603.5 feet long,
151 wide, and 66 high 184 by 46 by 20 meters. Like most others built Europe, it was a steel-lattice
structure with a light cladding. Much more inventive and spectacular were the parabolic reinforced
concrete hangars built in from 1922 to 1923 on a small military airfield among farmlands at Orly,
near Paris. They were a major achievement of engineering and architecture.
The French engineer-architect Marie EugM ne Leon Freyssinet 1879?1962 studied at the N cole
Polytechnique and the N cole Nationale des Ponts et Chaussees in Paris. After serving in the army in
World War I he became director of the Societe des Enterprises Limousin and later established his
own practice. A great innovator, he worked mainly with reinforced concrete, building several
bridges. By 1928 he was to patent a new technique, prestressing, that eliminated tension cracking in
reinforced concrete and solved many of the problems encountered with curved shapes. Simply, steel
reinforcing cables were stretched and the concrete poured around them when it set the cables were
released and because it was in compression the structural member acquired an upward deflection.
When it was loaded in situ the resulting downward deflection brought it back to the flat position
while remaining in compression.
At Orly, Freyssinet was presented with a brief that called for two sheds that could each contain a
sphere with a radius of 82 feet 25 meters, to be built at reasonable cost. He responded by designing
prestressed reinforced concrete buildings consisting of a series of parallel tapering parabolic arches
that formed vaults about 985 feet long, 300 wide, and 195 high 300 by 90 by 60 meters. The
internal span was about 266 feet 80 meters, and each arch was assembled from 25-foot-wide 7.5meter stacked, profiled sections only 3.5 inches 9 centimeters thick those at the base of the arch
were 18 feet 5.4 meters deep and those at the crown 11 feet 3.4 meters. Placed side by side, they
formed a very stiff corrugated enclosure. Starting at a height of 65 feet 20 meters, reinforced
yellow glass windows were cast in the outer flanges of the arches.
Freyssinet specified an easily compactable concrete to ensure that the hangars would be waterproof.
It was reinforced with steel bars and poured into reusable pine formwork that was itself stressed with
tension rods to create prestressed concrete. The concrete was also designed to flow into every corner
of the complicated molds, and it was fast-setting so that formwork could be quickly stripped and
reused. The structure was temporarily supported on timber centering, and a network of cables held
the formwork in tension until the concrete developed its full strength. In other structures lateral wind
loading could be resisted by cross bracing, but because clear spans were imperative, Freyssinet
provided the necessary stiffening byfolding the concrete on the component arches. The selfweight
of the massive structure was accommodated by increasing the cross-sectional area of the arches as
they approached the ground, where the foundations consisted of deep horizontal concrete pads laid with an inward slope toward the center of the hangars. Tragically, in 1944, U.S. aircraft
bombed these revolutionary and beautiful structures.