adverbs: position (details)

adverbs: position (details)

  • Connecting adverbs
      These adverbs join a clause to what came before.
      Examples: however, then, next, besides, anyway Position: beginning of clause.
      Some of us wanted to change the system; however, not everybody agreed.
      I worked without stopping until five o'clock. Then I went home.
      Next, I want to say something about the future.

  • Indefinite frequency
  • These adverbs say how often something happens.
    Examples: always, ever, usually, normally, often, frequently, sometimes, occasionally, rarely, seldom, never Position: mid-position (after auxiliary verbs and am, are, is, was and
    were: before other verbs).
    auxiliary verb + adverbj
    I have never seen a whale.
    You can always come and stay with us if you want to.
    Have you ever played American football?
    be + adverb My boss is often bad-tempered.
    I'm seldom late for work.
    adverb + other verb
    We usually go to Scotland in August. It sometimes gets very windy here.
    When there are two auxiliary verbs, these adverbs usually come after the first.
    We have never been invited to one of their parties.
    She must sometimes have wanted to run away.
    Usually, normally, often, frequently, sometimes and occasionally can go at the beginning of a clause for emphasis. Always, never, rarely, seldom and ever cannot.
    Sometimes I think I'd like to live somewhere else.
    Usually I get up early.
    (NOT Always I get up early. Never I get up early.)
    But always and never can come at the beginning of imperative clauses.
    Always look in your mirror before starting to drive.
    Never ask her about her marriage.
    For the position of adverbs of definite frequency (for example daily, weekly), see 8 below.

  • Focusing adverbs
  • These adverbs 'point to' or emphasize one part of the clause. Examples: also, just, even, only, mainly, mostly, either, or, neither, nor Position: mid-position (after auxiliary verbs and am, are, is, was and
    were; before other verbs).
    auxiliary verb + adverb
    i ~ i He's been everywhere—he's even been'to Antarctica.
    i ~ i_
    I'm only going for two days!
    be + adverb
    i ~ i
    She's my teacher, but she's also'my friend1 The people at the meeting were maTnly scientists.
    adverb + other verb
    i i Your bicycle just needs'some o//1— that's all. i i i i She neither said thank-you nor looked at me.
    Too and as well are focusing adverbs that go in end-position.Either goes in end-position after not.

  • Adverbs of certainty
  • We use these adverbs to say how sure we are of something. Examples: certainly, definitely, clearly, obviously, probably, really Position: mid-position (after auxiliary verbs and am, are, is, was and
    were; before other verbs).
    23
    14
    auxiliary verb + adverb
    It will probably rain this evening.
    The train has obviously been delayed.
    be + adverb
    There is clearly something wrong.
    She is definitely older than him.
    adverb + other verb
    He probably thinks you don't like him.
    I certainly feel better today.
    Maybe and perhaps usually come at the beginning of a clause.
    Perhaps her train is late.
    Maybe I'm right, and maybe I'm wrong.

  • Adverbs of completeness
  • These adverbs say how completely something happens.
    Examples: completely, practically, almost, nearly, quite, rather, partly sort of, kind of, hardly, scarcely Position: mid-position (after auxiliary verbs and am, are. is, was and
    were; before other verbs).
    | auxiliary verb + adverb
    I have completely forgotten your name.
    Sally can practically read.
    be + adverb]
    It is almost dark.
    The house is partly ready.
    |^adverb + other verb
    I kind of hope she wins.

  • Adverbs of manner
  • These adverbs say how, in what way, something happens or is done.
    Examples: angrily, happily, fast, slowly, suddenly, well, badly, nicely, noisily, quietly, hard, softly
    Position: most often at the end of a clause, especially if the adverb is
    emphasized. Adverbs in -ly can go in mid-position if the adverb is less important than the verb or object. Initial position is also possible.
    end-position
    He drove off angrily You speak English well.
    She read the letter slowly.
    mid-position
    She angrily tore up the letter.
    I slowly began to feel better again.
    initial position
    Suddenly I had an idea.
    In passive clauses, adverbs of manner often go before the past participle. This is very common with adverbs that say how well something is done (for example well, badly).
    | adverb + past participle]
    Everything has been carefully checked I thought it was very well written The conference was badly organized

  • Adverbs of place
  • These adverbs say where something happens.
    Examples: upstairs, around, here, to bed, in London, out of the window Position: at the end of a clause. Initial position also possible,
    especially in literary writing.
    The children are playing upstairs Come and sit here
    Don t throw orange peel out of the window She s sitting at the end of the garden
    At the end of the garden there was a very tall tree.
    Adverbs of direction (movement) come before adverbs of position.
    The children are running around upstairs Here and there often begin clauses. Note the word order.
    Here/There + verb + subjecT]
    Here comes your bus. (NOT Here your bus comes.)
    There s Alice.
    Pronoun subjects come directly after here and there.
    Here it comes (NOT Here comes it.)
    There she is. (NOT There is she.)

  • Adverbs of time
  • These adverbs say when something happens.
    Examples: today, afterwards, in June, last year, daily, weekly, every year, finally, before, eventually, already, soon, still, last
    Position: mostly in end-position; initial position also common. Some
    can go in mid-position (see below). Adverbs of indefinite frequency (often, ever etc) go in mid-position (see paragraph 2).
    I'm going to London today Today I'm going to London.
    She has a new hair style every week Every week she has a new hair style.
    Time adverbs in -ly can also go in mid-position; so can already, soon and last. Still and yusfonly go in mid-position.
    So you finally got here.
    I've already paid the bill.
    We'll soon be home.
    When did you last see your father?
    I still love you.
    She's just gone out.

  • Manner, place, time
    • At the end of a clause, adverbs usually come in the order manner, place, time (MPT).
      P T
      I went ihere'at once .'(NOT I went at once there.)
      P T Let's go to bed "early .'(NOT M
      I worked hard 'yesterday
      M _P _I_
      She sang beautifully 'in the town hall iast night.'
      With verbs of movement, we often put adverbs of place before adverbs of manner.
      P M She went home quickly'

  • Emphatic position
    • Mid-position adverbs go before emphasized auxiliary verbs or be. Compare:
      She has certainly made him angry.
      She certainly HAS made him angry!
      I m really sorry.
      I really AM sorry.
      'Polite people always say thank-you.'
      I always DO say thank-you.'

  • Other positions
    • Some adverbs can go directly with particular words or expressions that they modify. The most important are just, almost, only, really, even, right, terribly.
      I'll see you in the pub just before eight o'clock.
      I've read the book almost to the end.
      Only you could do a thing like that. I feel really tired He always wears a coat, even in summer
      She walked right past me. We all thought she sang terribly badly.
  • --- >>>
  • 'copula1 verbs
  • 'social' language
  • (a) few and (a) little
  • (a)round and about
  • (be) used to + noun or... -ing
  • (Great) Britain, the United Kingdom, the British Isles and England
  • -ing form ('gerund')
  • -ing form after to
  • -ing form or infinitive?
  • abbreviations
  • about to
  • above and over
  • across and over
  • across and through
  • active verb forms
  • actual(ly)
  • adjectives ending in -Iy
  • adjectives without nouns
  • adjectives: order
  • adjectives: position
  • adverbs of manner
  • adverbs: position (details)
  • adverbs: position (general)
  • after (conjunction)
  • after (preposition); afterwards (adverb)
  • after all
  • afternoon, evening and night
  • ages
  • ago
  • all (of) with nouns and pronouns
  • all and every
  • all and whole
  • all right
  • all with verbs
  • all, everybody and everything
  • almost and nearly
  • also, as well and too
  • although and though
  • among and between
  • and
  • and after try, wait, go etc
  • another
  • any (= 'it doesn't matter which')
  • any and no: adverbs
  • appear
  • articles: a and an; pronunciation of the
  • articles: a/an
  • articles: countable and uncountable nouns
  • articles: introduction
  • articles: special rules and exceptions
  • articles: talking in general
  • articles: the
  • articles: the difference between a/an and the
  • as and like
  • as if and as though
  • as much/many ... as ...
  • as well as
  • as, because and since (reason)
  • as, when and while (things happening at the same time)
  • as...as ...
  • ask
  • at all
  • at, in and on (place)
  • at, in and on (time)
  • be + infinitive
  • be with auxiliary do
  • be: progressive tenses
  • because and because of
  • before (adverb)
  • before (conjunction)
  • before (preposition) and in front of
  • begin and start
  • big, large, great and tall
  • born
  • borrow and lend
  • both (of) with nouns and pronouns
  • both with verbs
  • both... and...
  • bring and take
  • British and American English
  • broad and wide
  • but = except
  • by: time
  • can and could: ability
  • can and could: forms
  • can with remember, understand, speak, play, see, hear, feel, taste and smell
  • can: permission, offers, requests and orders
  • can: possibility and probability
  • close and shut
  • come and go
  • comparison: comparative and superlative adjectives
  • comparison: comparative and superlative adverbs
  • comparison: much, far etc with comparatives
  • comparison: using comparatives and superlatives
  • conditional
  • conjunctions
  • contractions
  • countable and uncountable nouns
  • country
  • dare
  • dates
  • determiners
  • discourse markers
  • do + -ing
  • do and make
  • do: auxiliary verb
  • during and for
  • during and in
  • each and every
  • each other and one another
  • each: grammar
  • either... or...
  • either: determiner
  • ellipsis (leaving words out)
  • else
  • emphasis
  • emphatic structures with it and what
  • enjoy
  • enough
  • even
  • eventual(ly)
  • ever
  • every and every one
  • except
  • except and except for
  • exclamations
  • excuse me, pardon and sorry
  • expect, hope, look forward, wait, want and wish
  • explain
  • fairly, quite, rather and pretty
  • far and a long way
  • farther and further
  • fast
  • feel
  • fewer and less
  • for + object + infinitive
  • for, since, from, ago and before
  • for: purpose
  • future perfect
  • future progressive
  • future: introduction
  • future: present progressive and going to
  • future: shall and will (interpersonal uses)
  • future: shall/will (predictions)
  • future: simple present
  • gender (masculine and feminine language)
  • get (+ object) + verb form
  • get + noun, adjective, adverb particle or preposition
  • get and go: movement
  • go ... -ing
  • go meaning'become'
  • go: been and gone
  • had better
  • half (of)
  • hard and hardly
  • have (got) to
  • have (got): possession, relationships etc
  • have + object + verb form
  • have: actions
  • have: auxiliary verb
  • have: introduction
  • hear and listen (to)
  • help
  • here and there
  • holiday and holidays
  • home
  • hope
  • how and what... like?
  • if only
  • if so and if not
  • if-sentences with could and might
  • if: ordinary tenses
  • if: special tenses
  • ill and sick
  • imperative
  • in and into (prepositions)
  • in case
  • in spite of
  • indeed
  • infinitive after who, what, how etc
  • infinitive of purpose
  • infinitive without to
  • infinitive: negative, progressive, perfect, passive
  • infinitive: use
  • instead of... -ing
  • inversion: auxiliary verb before subject
  • inversion: whole verb before subject
  • irregular verbs
  • it's time
  • it: preparatory object
  • it: preparatory subject
  • last and the last
  • let's
  • letters
  • likely
  • long and for a long time
  • look
  • look (at), watch and see
  • marry and divorce
  • may and might: forms
  • may and might: permission
  • may and might: probability
  • mind
  • modal auxiliary verbs
  • more (of): determiner
  • most (of): determiner
  • much (of), many (of): determiners
  • much, many, a lot etc
  • must and have to; mustn't, haven't got to, don't have to, don't need to and needn't
  • must: deduction
  • must: forms
  • must: obligation
  • names and titles
  • nationality words
  • need
  • negative questions
  • negative structures
  • neither (of): determiner
  • neither, nor and not... either
  • neither... nor...
  • next and nearest
  • next and the next
  • no and none
  • no and not
  • no and not a/not any
  • no more, not any more, no longer, not any longer
  • non-progressive verbs
  • noun + noun
  • numbers
  • once
  • one and you: indefinite personal pronouns
  • one: substitute word
  • other and others
  • ought
  • own
  • participle clauses
  • participles used as adjectives
  • participles: 'present' and 'past' participles (-ing and -ed)
  • passive structures: introduction
  • passive verb forms
  • past tense with present or future meaning
  • past time: past perfect simple and progressive
  • past time: past progressive
  • past time: present perfect progressive
  • past time: present perfect simple
  • past time: simple past
  • past time: the past and perfect tenses (introduction)
  • perfect tenses with this is the first time..., etc
  • personal pronouns (I, me, it etc)
  • play and game
  • please and thank you
  • possessive with determiners (a friend of mine, etc)
  • possessive's: forms
  • possessive's: use
  • possessives: my and mine, etc
  • prepositional verbs and phrasal verbs
  • prepositions after particular words and expressions
  • prepositions and adverb particles
  • prepositions at the end of clauses
  • prepositions before particular words and expressions
  • prepositions: expressions without prepositions
  • present tenses: introduction
  • present tenses: present progressive
  • present tenses: simple present
  • progressive tenses with always
  • punctuation: apostrophe
  • punctuation: colon
  • punctuation: comma
  • punctuation: dash
  • punctuation: quotation marks
  • punctuation: semi-colons and full stops
  • question tags
  • questions: basic rules
  • questions: reply questions
  • questions: word order in spoken questions
  • quite
  • real(ly)
  • reflexive pronouns
  • relative pronouns
  • relative pronouns: what
  • relative pronouns: whose
  • relatives: identifying and non-identifying clauses
  • remind
  • reported speech and direct speech
  • reported speech: orders, requests, advice etc
  • reported speech: pronouns; 'here and now' words; tenses
  • reported speech: questions
  • requests
  • road and street
  • say and tell
  • see
  • seem
  • shall
  • short answers
  • should
  • should after why and how
  • should and would
  • should, ought and must
  • should: (If I were you) I should ...
  • similar words
  • since (conjunction of time): tenses
  • singular and plural: anybody etc
  • singular and plural: irregular plurals
  • singular and plural: plural expressions with singular verbs
  • singular and plural: pronunciation of plural nouns
  • singular and plural: singular words ending in -s
  • singular and plural: singular words with plural verbs
  • singular and plural: spelling of plural nouns
  • slow(ly)
  • small and little
  • smell
  • so am I, so do I etc
  • so and not with hope, believe etc
  • some and any
  • some/any and no article
  • some: special uses
  • somebody and anybody, something and anything, etc
  • sound
  • spelling and pronunciation
  • spelling: -ise and -ize
  • spelling: -ly
  • spelling: capital letters
  • spelling: ch and tch, k and ck
  • spelling: doubling final consonants
  • spelling: final -e
  • spelling: full stops with abbreviations
  • spelling: hyphens
  • spelling: ie and ei
  • spelling: y and i
  • still, yet and already
  • subject and object forms
  • subjunctive
  • such and so
  • suggest
  • surely
  • sympathetic
  • take
  • take (time)
  • tall and high
  • taste
  • telephoning
  • telling the time
  • tenses in subordinate clauses
  • that: omission
  • the same
  • there is
  • think
  • this and that
  • too
  • travel, journey and trip
  • unless and if not
  • until and by
  • until and to
  • used to + infinitive
  • verbs with object complements
  • verbs with two objects
  • way
  • weak and strong forms
  • well
  • when and if
  • whether and if
  • whether... or...
  • which, what and who: question words
  • who ever, what ever, how ever etc
  • whoever, whatever, whichever, however, whenever and wherever
  • will
  • wish
  • worth ... -ing
  • would
  • would rather
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    English Grammar
    These verbs have essentially the same meaning. You can:
  • answer an email
  • reply to an email (most common when talking about e-mail)
  • respond to an email

    When someone calls you, you answer the phone (or pick up the phone).

    When you make a statement or some comments, we usually say the other person replies or responds.

    When you ask a question, we usually say the other person answers. However, this is not 100% - reply and respond can also be used for answering a question.

    When used as a noun (with a, an, the and possessive pronouns like my, your, his, her, etc.) the words answer and reply don't change - but the noun form of "respond" is response.
  • He answered my question, but I didn't understand his answer.
  • We're waiting for a reply from the customer.
  • Her response to his comment was brilliant.

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