➲ A gerund phrase includes the gerund, its modifiers, and the words
that complete the idea begun by the gerund.
In each sentence, the gerund is italicized, and the gerund phrase is
Shopping for new dresses excites Terry Anne. (subject)
The orchestra members enjoy rehearsing for long periods of time.
Tommy’s passion is running long distances. (predicate nominative)
Joanna’s love, running, kept her very fit. (appositive)
Can you pass the test by studying very hard this month? (object of the
Note: Remember that the same phrase can have several uses.
The man signaling to you is my grandfather. (participial phrase)
Signaling to you was not difficult. (gerund phrase)
The player passing the soccer ball is James. (participial phrase)
Passing the soccer ball was hard for that man. (gerund phrase)