Commas Part Four

Commas Part Four

Here is a very important comma rule. Study it, and use it well in your writing.

Use a comma to separate nonessential or nonrestrictive clauses, participial
phrases, and appositives. A nonessential or nonrestrictive element adds
information that is not necessary to the sentence’s basic meaning.

• Nonessential or nonrestrictive clauses

The debate, which was attended by two hundred people, was exciting.
(The fact that two hundred people attended the debate is not
essential to the sentence’s basic meaning.)
ESSENTIAL CLAUSES: (Each underlined clause restricts the italicized
word that it modifies.)

The dress that Mom wore to the dinner last night was a gift from

A man who has confidence will go far.
• Nonessential or nonrestrictive participial phrases
My two buddies, posing for their high school reunion photo, have
worked for the government for the past thirty years. (The fact
that these two buddies are posing for their high school reunion
photo is not essential to the sentence’s meaning.)

ESSENTIAL PARTICIPIAL PHRASES: (Each underlined phrase restricts
the italicized word that it modifies.)

These cards left on the table belong to Gino.
The woman hailing the cab is my sister.

• Nonessential or nonrestrictive appositives
Stuart, my best friend, loves to laugh.

ESSENTIAL APPOSITIVE PHRASES: (Each underlined appositive phrase
restricts the italicized word that it modifies.)

Has your music teacher, Mrs. Brennan, given you the assignment?
The address, 1313 Mockingbird Lane, should ring a bell with televi-
sion viewers of that era..

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  • the interjection
  • Active and passive voices
  • agreement between indefinite pronouns and their antecedents
  • agreement involving prepositional phrases
  • Commas Part Five
  • Commas Part Four
  • Commas Part One
  • Commas Part Three
  • Commas Part Two
  • complete and simple predicates
  • complete and simple subjects
  • complex sentences
  • compound complex sentences
  • compound prepositions and the preposition adverb question
  • compound subject and compound predicate
  • compound subjects part two
  • compound subjects part one
  • Confusing usage words part eight
  • Confusing usage words part five
  • Confusing usage words part four
  • Confusing usage words part one
  • Confusing usage words part seven
  • Confusing usage words part six
  • Confusing usage words part three
  • Confusing usage words part three 2
  • Confusing usage words part two
  • First Capitalization List
  • indefinite pronouns
  • Indefinite pronouns and the possessive case
  • introducing clauses
  • introducing phrases
  • Irregular Comparison of Adjectives and Adverbs
  • irregular verbs part one
  • irregular verbs part two
  • Italics Hyphens and Brackets
  • Misplaced and dangling modifiers
  • More Apostrophe Situations
  • More subject verb agreement situations
  • Parentheses Ellipsis Marks and Dashes
  • Periods Question Marks and Exclamation Marks
  • personal pronouns
  • pronouns and their antecedents
  • Quotation Marks Part Three
  • Quotation Marks Part One
  • Quotation Marks Part Two
  • reflexive demonstrative and interrogative pronouns
  • Regular Comparison of Adjectives and Adverbs
  • regular verb tenses
  • Second Capitalization List
  • sentences fragments and run on sentences
  • singular and plural nouns and pronouns
  • Sound a like words Part Four
  • Sound a like words Part Three
  • Sound a like words Part Two
  • Sound alike words part one
  • subject and verb agreement
  • subject complements predicate nominatives and predicate adjectives
  • subject verb agreement situations
  • the adjective
  • the adjective clause
  • the adjective phrase
  • the adverb
  • the adverb clause
  • the adverb phrase
  • The Apostrophe
  • the appositive
  • The Colon
  • The coordinating conjunction
  • the correlative conjunction
  • the direct object
  • the gerund and gerund phrase
  • the indirect object
  • the infinitive and infinitive phrase
  • The nominative case
  • the noun
  • the noun adjective pronoun question
  • the noun clause
  • the object of the preposition
  • the participle and participial phrase
  • The possessive case
  • The possessive case 2
  • The possessive case and pronouns
  • the preposition
  • the prepositional phrase
  • the pronoun
  • The Semicolon
  • the subordinating conjunction
  • the verb
  • The verb be
  • the verb phrase
  • Transitive and intransitive verbs
  • types of nouns
  • types of sentences by purpose
  • Using Capital Letters
  • what good writers do
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