prepositions - of

Prepositions - Of

1. Of indicates belonging or connection.

a. Of identifies a thing as a connection or part of another thing.
the pages of the book
the leaves of the tree

b. Of identifies people, animals, or plants as part of a larger group.

Pattern: noun + of + this/that + noun
the women of that family
the people of that religion

Nouns commonly used after of:
city, club, company, country, culture, descent, faith, family, gender, genus, group, ilk, organization, race, religion, society, species

c. Of identifies ideas or works with their author, artist, or composer.

Pattern: noun + of + noun the works of Shakespeare
the methods of the teacher

Nouns often used before of:
essays, ideas, method, music, novels, opinion, paintings, plays, poems, poetry, songs, work, writing

d. Of identifies an individual or special member of a group or institution.

Pattern: noun + of + noun
the president of the class
the coordinators of the program

Nouns commonly used before of:
captain, citizen, coordinator, dictator, head, hero, heroine, leader, loser, manager, mayor, member, president, secretary, servant, star, student, teacher, treasurer, villain, winner

e. Of identifies a person’s occupation or area of specialization.

Pattern: noun + of + noun
a professor of mathematics
students of cardiology
practitioner of medicine

f. Of indicates a connection with a place.

Pattern: noun + of + noun
a native of Alaska
the birds and animals of Australia

Nouns often used before of:
animal, bird, citizen, graduate, inhabitant, native, people, resident

g. Of indicates a connection with a period of time.
the music of the eighties
the dances of her youth the fourth of July
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    An abstract noun is one which is used to mean an idea, experience or quality rather than an object. Thus happiness, intention and shock are abstract nouns whereas, for example, pen, bed and trousers are not.

    There are a number of suffixes which are used particularly frequently in the formation of abstract nouns. Some of the most common are -ment, -ion, -ness and -ity.

    Note: -ment and -ion are usually used to make verbs into abstract nouns whereas -ness and -ity are added to adjectives; -ion sometimes becomes -tion, -sion, -ation or -ition.

    Here are some examples of abstract nouns using those suffixes.



    Less common suffixes associated with abstract nouns are -ship, -dom, -th and -hood.

    Note: -ship and -hood are usually used in combination with other nouns whereas -th combines with an adjective to form an abstract noun and -dom can combine with either a noun or an adjective.

    Here are some examples of abstract nouns using those suffixes.



    There are also a large number of abstract nouns which do not use any suffix at all. Here are some examples of these.






    Exercise-1:

    What is the abstract noun related to each of the following adjectives? All the nouns are formed in ways described on the opposite page although not all are listed opposite.

             Example: affectionate affection
    1. affectionate  5. amused   9. attentive      13. equal
    2. excited         6. graceful     10. happy        14. hopeful
    3. kind              7. original      11. popular     15. resentful
    4. secure           8. stupid        12. weak          16. wise

    Exercise-2:

    Find at least one more noun using each of the suffixes in B and C.

    Exercise-3:

    Which abstract noun on the opposite page is a synonym of each of the following?
    Example: animosity hostility or aggressiveness

    1. animosity          5. substitution        9. vision

    2. astonishment   6. fame                   10. liberty

    3. inquisitiveness  7. decrease           11. fury

    4. fraternity           8. area                   12. wealth

    Exercise-4:

    Complete the following table.



    Exercise-5:

    Which of the words in the list below is being described in the following quotations?
    love           permanence             hope            jealousy           happiness              beauty

    1. ‘ ________  is no more than feeling alone among smiling enemies.’

    2. ‘________ is like coke; something you get as the by-product of making something else.’

    3. ‘________ is the power of being cheerful in circumstances which we know to be desperate.’

    4. ‘________ is a universal migraine.’

    5. ‘The British love ________ more than they love ________ .

    Exercise-6:

    Write your own quotations to describe the following abstract nouns.

    1. freedom          2. friendship         3. life             4. curiosity              5. imagination




    Answer-1:

    1. affection 5. amusement 9. attentiveness 13. equality
    2. excitement 6. grace 10. happiness 14. hope
    3. kindness 7. originality 11. popularity 15. resentment
    4. security 8. stupidity 12. weakness 16. wisdom

    Answer-2:

    Some possible answers:

    There are many more possibilities for the B suffixes but not many for the C ones.

    B -ment (un) employment entertainment involvement requirement -ion diversion attraction direction rejection -ness awkwardness foolishness loveliness madness

    -ity brutality familiarity productivity superiority

    C - dom dukedom earldom

    -ship citizenship chairmanship sponsorship championship

    -tb growth wealth stealth -hood babyhood nationhood

    Answer-3:

    1. hostility or aggressiveness
    2. amazement
    3. curiosity
    4. brotherhood
    5. replacement
    6. stardom
    7. reduction
    8. neighbourhood
    9. sight
    10. freedom
    11. rage
    12. prosperity

    Answer-4:



    Answer-5:

    1. Jealousy 2. Happiness 3. Hope 4. Love 5. permanence; beauty

    (‘Coke’ in question 2 means the fuel produced while taking gas from coal. A migraine is a very bad headache.)

    Answer-6:

    How you answer this question is a matter of your own originality. Here are some ‘real’ quotations about these abstract nouns, however:

    1. Freedom is an indivisible word. If we want to enjoy it, and to fight for it, we must be prepared to extend it to everyone.

    2. Friendship is unnecessary, like philosophy, like art... It has no survival value; rather it is one of those things that gives value to survival.

    3. Life is a foreign language; all men mispronounce it.

    4. Four be the things I’d be better without:

    Love, curiosity, freckles and doubt.

    5. Where there is no imagination, there is no horror.

     
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